Living Environment Testing Frequency

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2010

Aug’

2010

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2010

Jany

2009

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2009

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2009

Jany

2008

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2008

June

2008

Jany

2007

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07

Jany

07

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06

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06

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06

Jany

 

05

Aug

 

05

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05

Jany

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

1.1a Scientific explanations are built by combining evidence that can be observed with what people already know about the world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1b Learning about the historical development of scientific    

                 concepts or about individuals

who have contributed to scientific knowledge provides a better understanding of scientific inquiry and the relationship between science and society

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1c Science provides knowledge, but values are also essential to making effective and ethical decisions about the application of scientific knowledge.

Hone ideas through reasoning, library research, and discussion with others, including experts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.2a-  Important levels of organization

 for structure and function include organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms.

909LE1.2aUnicellularOrganisms.asf

911LE1.2cellToTissues.asf

914E1.2aOrganstoOrganSystem.asf

915E1.2aOrganizationOfOrganism.asf

 

 

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1.2b Humans are complex organisms. They require multiple systems for digestion, respiration, reproduction, circulation, excretion, movement, coordination, and immunity.

The systems interact to perform the life functions.

901LER1.2bDigest'n_Mouth_&_Stomach.asf

903LE1.2bcircu'system_intro.asf

907LE2.1aBlood.asf

908LE2.1aHealthyCirculatorySystem.asf

how_domuscles_work.asf

TYPESOFMUSCLES.asf

770LERespiration.asf

immunesystem.asf

skinexcretoryorgan.asf

excretionkidney.asf

endocrinesystem&othermaj.gland.asf

EndocrineSysIntro.asf

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3a Scientific explanations are accepted when they are consistent with experimental and observational evidence and when they lead to accurate predictions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.3b  All scientific explanations are tentative and subject to change or improvement.

 

Each new bit of evidence can create more questions than it answers. This leads to increasingly better understanding of how things work in the living world.

 

Coordinate explanations at different levels of scale, points of focus, and degrees of complexity

and specificity, and recognize the need for such alternative representations of the natural world.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.4a Well-accepted theories are ones that are supported by different kinds of scientific  investigations often involving  the contributions of individuals from different disciplines.

 

 

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LE2.1 Intro -The inherited instructions that are passed from parent to offspring exist in the form of a code. This code is contained in DNA molecules.

 

 

The DNA molecules must be accurately replicated before being passed on. Once to coded information is passed on, it is used by a cell to make proteins. The proteins that are made become cell parts and carry out most functions of the cell.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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2.1a Genes are inherited, but their expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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2.1b Every organism requires a set of coded instructions for specifying its traits. For offspring to resemble their parents, there must be a reliable way to transfer information from one generation to the next.

 

Heredity is the passage of these instructions from one

generation to another

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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7.

2.1c Hereditary information is contained in genes, located in the chromosomes of each cell.

 

An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one or by many genes, and a single gene can influence more than one trait.

 

 A human cell contains many thousands of different genes in its nucleus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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8.

2.1d In asexually reproducing organisms, all the genes come from a single parent. Asexually produced offspring are normally genetically identical to the parent. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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9.

2.1e In sexually reproducing organisms, the new individual receives half of the genetic information from its mother (via the egg) and half from its father (via the sperm). Sexually produced offspring often resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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10.

2.1f

 In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are carried in DNA, a large molecule formed from subunits arranged in a sequence with bases of four kinds (represented by A, G, C, and T).

DNA -738DNAstructure.asf-   740LE2.1fChargaffrule.asf

 

The chemical and structural properties of DNA are the basis for how the genetic information that underlies heredity is both encoded in genes (as a string of molecular bases) and replicated by means of a template the shape of the protein.

 

The shape of the protein, in turn, determines its function.

 

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11.

2.1g Cells store and use coded information. The genetic information stored in DNA is used to direct the synthesis of the thousands of proteins that each cell requires.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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12.

2.1h Genes are segments of DNA molecules. Any alteration of the DNA sequence is a mutation. Usually, an altered gene will be passed on to every cell that develops from it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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13.

2.1i The work of the cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles, mostly proteins. Protein molecules are long, usually folded chains made

from 20 different kinds of amino acids in a specific sequence. This sequence influences

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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2.1j Offspring resemble their parents because they inherit similar genes that code for the production of proteins that form similar structures and perform similar functions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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2.1k The many body cells in an individual can be very different from one another, even though they are all descended from a single cell and thus have essentially identical genetic instructions.

 

This is because different parts of these instructions are used in different types of cells, and are influenced by the cell’s environment and past history.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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